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%% Text file for Proceedings Trim Size [10in x 7in] written in Latex2E.
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\documentclass{ws-procs10x7}
\begin{document}
\title{Instructions for Producing a Camera-Ready Copy (CRC)
using World Scientific Publishing Style Files}
\author{C. W. Lee and Yolande}
\address{World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc, 1060 Main Street, River Edge NJ 07661,
USA\\E-mail: wspc@wspc.com}
\author{Elsie Tan, Jessie Tan and R. Sankaran}
\address{World Scienfitic Publishing Co Ltd,
57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden\\ London WC2H 9HE, England\\
E-mail: wspc@wspc.ox.uk}
\twocolumn[\maketitle\abstract{
This is where the abstract should be placed. It should
consist of one paragraph and give a concise summary of the material in
the article below. Replace the title, authors, and addresses within the
curly brackets with your own title, authors, and
addresses. You may have as many authors and addresses as you.
The control sequences of author
and addresses can be repeated as often as necessary.
Do not use footnotes in the abstract or the title; the
acknowledgments for funding bodies etc. are placed in a separate
section at the end of the text.}]
\section{Guidelines}%1
\subsection{Producing the Hard Copy}\label{subsec:prod}%1.1
The hard copy may be produced using the instructions given in
the file {\it stlread.1st}, which are repeated in this section.
You should have three files in total.\footnote{
You can obtain these files from our WWW pages at:\\
\noindent
{\sf http://www.wspc.com.sg/others/style$\_$files/proceedings/proceedings$\_$style$\_$files.shtml.}
}
\noindent {\sf procs-readme10x7$\_$2e.txt} --- the preliminary guide.
\noindent {\sf ws-procs10x7.cls} --- the style file that provides the
higher level latex2e commands for the
proceedings. Don't change
these parameters.
\noindent {\sf ws-procs10x7.tex} --- the main text.
You can delete our sample text and replace it with your
own contribution to the volume, however we
recommend keeping an initial version of the
file for reference. Strip off any mail headers
and then latex the tex file. The command for latexing is {\sf latex
ws-procs10x7}, do this twice to sort out the cross-referencing.
{We have provided the running page number, jobname and submission
informations at the bottom of each page with overfull box for
identification purpose only. The same will be\hfilneg}
\vfill\eject
\baselineskip=12.8pt
\noindent
removed at the final stage and the new folio will be set by us
according to the lineup of the volume.
If you wish to use some other form of word-processor, some guidelines
are given in Sec.~\ref{subsec:wpp} below. These files will work with
standard Latex2e. If there is an abbreviation defined in the new
definitions at the top of the file {\it ws-procs10x7.tex} that
conflicts with one of your own macros, then delete the appropriate
command and revert to longhand. Failing that, please consult your
local texpert to check for other conflicting macros that may be unique
to your computer system. Page numbers are included at the bottom of
the page for your guidance. Do not worry about the final pagination of
the volume which will be done after you submit the paper.
\begin{figure}%1
\epsfxsize120pt
\figurebox{120pt}{160pt}{}
\caption{Caption for the figure will come here.}
\label{fig:radk}
\end{figure}
\begin{table*}[t]
\begin{equation}%1
U = D(\delta_1 , \delta_2 , \delta_3 , \delta_4)
R_{12}(a,\delta_5)R_{13}(b,\delta_6)R_{14}(c,\delta_7)R_{23}(d,\delta_8)
R_{24}(e,\delta_9)R_{34}(f,\delta_{10})
\label{eq:murnf}
\end{equation}
\end{table*}
\subsection{Using Other Word-Processing Packages}\label{subsec:wpp}%1.1
{If you want to use some other form of word-processor to construct your
output, and are using the final hard copy version of these files as
guidelines; then please follow the style\hfilneg}
\vfill\eject
\baselineskip=13pt
\noindent
given here for headings,
table and figure captions, and the footnote and citation marks. For
this size of volume, the final page dimensions will be 10 by 7 inches,
however you should submit the copy on standard A4 paper. The text area
(which includes the page numbers) should be 8.25 by 5.6 inches and the
separation between the columns is 0.20in. The text should be in 10pt
roman for the title, section heads and the body of the text, using
capitals for the title and authors, bold face for the title and
headings, and italics for the subheadings. The abstract, footnotes,
figure and table captions should be in 8pt.
It's also important to reproduce the spacing of the text and
headings as shown here. Text should be slightly more than
single-spaced; use a baselineskip (which is the average distance
from the base of one line of text to the base of an adjacent
line) of 13 pts and 10 pts for footnotes. All headings should be
separated from the text preceding it by a baselineskip of about
26 pts and use a baselineskip of about 18 pts for the following
text.
Paragraphs should have a first line indented by about 0.25in
(6mm), except where the paragraph is preceded by a heading, and
the abstract should be indented on both sides by 0.25in (6mm)
from the main body of the text.
\subsection{Headings and Text}
Please preserve the style of the headings, text fonts and line
spacing to provide a uniform style for the proceedings volume.
In a two column format there are more difficulties when finding
suitable line and page breaks. We recommend that you leave such
problems until preparing the final draft and after you have
checked the placing of the two-column wide tables etc. (See
Sec.~\ref{sec:plac} below).
\subsection{Equations}
Equations should be confined to one column wherever possible, as
in Eq.~(\ref{eq:it}), and the {\it eqnarray} environment may be
used to split equations into several lines, for example in
Eq.~(\ref{eq:sp}), or to align several equations. An alternative
method is given in Eq.~(\ref{eq:spa}) for long sets of equations
where only one referencing equation number is wanted.
If it's essential to have a two-column wide equation then use
the method
of Eq.~(\ref{eq:murnf}) above. The surrounding environment is
important here.
In the text file {\it ws-procs10x7.tex} make sure that you keep the
declarations
{\it $\backslash$begin\{table$\ast$\}} and
{\it $\backslash$end\{table$\ast$\}}
and only change the equation and its label within the inner equation
environment.
\begin{table}%1
\caption{This is a Small Table.}\label{tab:smtab}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|}
\hline
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{Title} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{$\epsilon^{\prime}$} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{$\lambda$} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{$\gamma$} \\
\hline
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{3.5687} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{3.4567} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{3.8746} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{2.8934} \\
\cline{1-2}
\multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{Trans Process
for Decay}} & &\\\cline{1-2}
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{6.8977} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{8.9087} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{2.8989} &
\raisebox{0pt}[12pt][6pt]{4.2928} \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
For problems of placement of a wide equation, see
Sec.~\ref{sec:plac} below.
Please note, do not use square brackets in two-column
wide figures, tables and
equations. This is a bug due to the declaration
{\it $\backslash$twocolumn$[$...$]$} which is hidden in
the definition of
{\it table$\ast$} and {\it figure$\ast$}.
\subsection{Tables}
The tables are designed to have a uniform style throughout the
proceedings volume. It doesn't matter how you choose to place
the inner lines of the table, but we would prefer the border
lines to be of the style shown in Tables~\ref{tab:smtab}
and~\ref{tab:exp}. For either a single or a double column
table, the top and bottom horizontal lines should be single
(using {\it $\backslash$hline}), and there should be single
vertical lines on the perimeter, (using
{\it $\backslash$begin\{tabular\}\{$|...|$\}}) as in
Tables~\ref{tab:smtab} and~\ref{tab:exp}. For the inner lines
of the table, it looks better if they are kept to a minimum.
We've chosen more complicated examples purely as an illustration
of what is possible.
We recommend the use of single column-wide tables wherever possible. For the
page wide tables, use the environment given in the example of
Table~\ref{tab:exp}. Do not change the latex commands from
{\it $\backslash$begin\{table$\ast$\}} to
{\it $\backslash$begin\{tabular\}},
or from
{\it $\backslash$end\{tabular\}} to {\it $\backslash$end\{table$\ast$\}},
apart
from inserting your own caption heading and table label.
The caption heading for a table should be placed at the top
of the table.
\subsection{Figures}
The same arguments apply as are given above for tables, i.e.~it
is preferable to have figures that fit into one column of the text.
If this is not possible, then use the example of
figure~\ref{fig:radish} and use the commands
{\it $\backslash$begin\{figure$\ast$\}} and
{\it $\backslash$end\{figure$\ast$\}}. The {\it $\backslash$figurebox\{\}\{\}\{\}} command is defined with three arguments.
First argument is for the figure height, second argument is for figure
width, and the third will be for the actual figure/image file
name, (i.e. eps/ps file name).
If you wish to `embed' a {\it eps/postscript} figure in the file, then
include the figure/image {\it (eps/ps)} file name in the third argument with
an extension, (i.e. {\it figure.eps or figure.ps}), etc. While embedding
the figure it is
not necessary to fill the first and second arguments
and if the thrid argument is empty,
the system will read the first two arguments and generate the box based on the measurements provided.
If you like to
reduce or enlarge (scaling) the eps/ps figure, please remove
the \% mark
from the declaration of the {\it $\backslash$epsfxsize} and provide the exact width of the
figure. Latex2e will scale the
figure based on the width provided and adjust the height accordingly.
You can use any form of the units of measurement described
in the \LaTeX\ Book.
\begin{table*}[t]
\caption{Experimental Data bearing on $\Gamma(K \rightarrow \pi \pi \gamma)$
for the $K^0_S$, $K^0_L$ and $K^-$ mesons.\label{tab:exp}}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|p{187pt}|}
\hline
\raisebox{0pt}[16pt][6pt]{Meson} &
$\Gamma(\pi^+\pi^-)\; s^{-1}$ &
$\Gamma(\pi^+\pi^-\gamma)\; s^{-1}$ &{} \\[3pt]
\hline
\raisebox{0pt}[16pt][6pt]{$K^0_S$} & $0.769 \times 10^{10}$ & $5.46 \times 10^7$ &
No DE observed, not even (IB)-E1
interference, despite large statistics, for $E^{\ast}_{\gamma} >
20$~MeV.\\[6pt]
\hline
\raisebox{0pt}[16pt][6pt]{$K^0_L$} &
$3.93 \times 10^4$ &
\raisebox{-6pt}[16pt][6pt]{$\displaystyle{0.90 \times 10^3\atop (\rm{DE} = 0.62 \times 10^3)}$} &
DE prominent, exceeding IB over the
range of measurement $20 < E^{\ast}_{\gamma} < 160$~MeV.\\[6pt]
\hline\hline
\raisebox{0pt}[16pt][6pt]{}& $\Gamma(\pi^- \pi^0)\; s^{-1}$ &
$\Gamma(\pi^- \pi^0 \gamma)\; s^{-1}$ &\\[6pt] \hline
\raisebox{0pt}[16pt][6pt]{$K^-$} & $1.711 \times 10^7$
&\raisebox{-6pt}[16pt][6pt]{$\displaystyle {2.22 \times 10^4\atop (\rm {DE} = 1.46 \times 10^3)}$} &
No (IB)-E1 interference seen but data shows
excess events relative to IB over $E^{\ast}_{\gamma} = 80$ to $100$~MeV\\[6pt]
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table*}
If instead you wish to use some other method, then it's most
important to leave the right amount of vertical space in the
figure declaration to accommodate your figure (i.e.~remove the
lines and change the space in the example). Send the original hard copy
of the figure on a separate page, clearly identifying where it should
be placed on the final hard copy. The original figure you send
should be correctly scaled as this ensures that the details will
be visible in the final version. The figure caption should be placed
below the figure.
\subsection{Limitations on the Placement of Equations, Tables
and Figures}\label{sec:plac}
In the final stages of preparing the document,
try to declare the two-column wide figures,
tables or equations at a point in
{\it ws-procs10x7.tex} that is prior to the top of the column of
hard-copy text
where you would like the item to appear.\footnote{By `declaring'
we refer to placing the chunk of material
describing the table or whatever at a particular point in the text file.}
Very large figures and tables should be placed on a page by
themselves. One
can use the instruction {\it $\backslash$begin\{figure$\ast$\}$[$p$]$} or
{\it $\backslash$begin\{table$\ast$\}$[$p$]$}
to position these, and they will appear on a separate page
devoted to
figures and tables. Again, we would recommend making any necessary
adjustments to the layout of the figures and tables
only in the final draft. It is also simplest to sort out line and
page breaks in the last stages.
\subsection{Footnotes, the Bibliography, Appendices and Acknowledgments}
Acknowledgments to funding bodies etc. may be placed in a separate
section at the end of the text, before the Appendices.
This should not
be numbered so use {\it $\backslash$section$\ast$\{Acknowledgements\}}.
It's preferable to have no appendices in a brief article, but
if more
than one is necessary then simply copy the
{\it $\backslash$section$\ast$\{Appendix\}}
heading and type in Appendix A, Appendix B etc. between the brackets.
Footnotes are denoted by a letter superscript in the text, and references
are denoted by a number superscript.
We have used {\it $\backslash$bibitem} to produce the bibliography.
Citations in the text use the labels defined in the bibitem
declaration,
for example, the first paper by Jarlskog\cite{ja} is cited using the command
{\it $\backslash$cite\{ja\}}.
If you more commonly use the method of square brackets in
the line of text
for citation than the superscript method,
please note that you need to adjust the punctuation
so that the citation command appears after the punctuation mark.
\subsection{Final Manuscript}
The final hard copy that you send must be absolutely clean and unfolded.
It will be printed directly without any further editing. Use a printer
that has a good resolution (300 dots per inch or higher). There should
not be any corrections made on the printed pages, nor should adhesive
tape cover any lettering. Photocopies are not acceptable.
The manuscript will not be reduced or enlarged when filmed so please ensure
that indices and other small pieces of text are legible.
\section{Sample Text}
The following may be (and has been) described as `dangerously irrelevant'
physics. The Lorentz-invariant phase space integral for
a general n-body decay from a particle with momentum $P$
and mass $M$ is given by:
\begin{equation}
I((P - k_i)^2, m^2_i, M) = \frac{1}{(2 \pi)^5}\!
\int\!\frac{d^3 k_i}{2 \omega_i} \! \delta^4(P - k_i).
\label{eq:it}
\end{equation}
The only experiment on $K^{\pm} \rightarrow \pi^{\pm} \pi^0 \gamma$ since 1976
is that of Bolotov {\it et al}.\cite{bu}
The photon spectrum observed certainly exceeds the IB spectrum for
$E^{\ast}_{\gamma} \geq 70$~MeV. These authors report definite
evidence for DE, however they ``conclude that [IB-DE]
interference is not observed'' in their experiment but such
interference is expected to
be seen.
Although PDG has recorded the Serphukov experiment as $K^+$
decay, it is in fact a $K^-$ experiment. This is not a trivial
difference. Assuming CPT invariance to be satisfied, CP
violation is equivalent with T violation. The latter has to do
with phases in the DE processes. Part of the calculated phase
will arise from the final-state interactions, but there will
also be a non-zero phase in the initial Lagrangian which may
feed through to the phases in the final amplitudes. These
Lagrangian phases will be different for the $K^+$
and $K^-$ processes, and can give rise to differences between
spectra and rates for $K^+$ and $K^-$ mesons.
\begin{figure*}
\epsfxsize30pc
\figurebox{16pc}{32pc}{}
\caption{Dynamics of two limit cycle oscillators. The repulsive
case $(K<0)$ and attractive case $(K>0)$ are shown. The rate of
phase separation, $f$, is plotted versus the phase separation
between the oscillators. \label{fig:radish}}
\end{figure*}
\subsection{Parametrizations of the CKM Matrix}
It is emphasised that there are two necessary conditions
required for any acceptable parametrization of the quark mixing
matrix. The first is that the matrix must be unitary, and the
second is that it should contain a CP violating phase $\delta$.
In Sec.~\ref{sec:four} the connection between invariants (of
form similar to J) and unitarity relations will be examined
further for the more general $ n \times n $ case. For the
present, it's sufficient to note that J is equal to just twice
the area of any one of these triangles. This does not mean that
a non-zero J follows from unitarity alone; if J equalled zero,
the unitarity constraint would still hold, but the triangle
would collapse to a straight line and the measurement of J would
be of no use in determining the existence of CP violation if the
quark mixing matrix was in fact represented by such a matrix.
The reason is that such a matrix is not a faithful
representation of the group, i.e.~it does not cover all of the
parameter space available.
\begin{eqnarray}
T & = & Im[V_{11} {V_{12}}^* {V_{21}}^* V_{22}]\nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} + Im[V_{12} {V_{13}}^* {V_{22}}^* V_{23}] \nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} - Im[V_{12} {V_{13}}^* {V_{22}}^* V_{23}] \nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} - Im[V_{33} {V_{31}}^* {V_{13}}^* V_{11}].\label{eq:sp}
\end{eqnarray}
\noindent
There are only 162 quark mixing matrices using these parameters
which are to first order in the phase variable $e^{i \delta}$ as
is the case for the Jarlskog parametrizations, and for which $J$
is not identically zero.\footnote{An example of a matrix which has elements
containing the phase variable $e^{i \delta}$ to second order, i.e.
elements with a phase variable $e^{2i \delta}$ is given at the
end of this section.} It should be emphasised that
these are physically identical and form just one true parametrization.
\subsection{Four and N-Generation Mixing Matrix} \label{sec:four}
Murnaghan\cite{ma} provided the most general representation of
a $4 \times 4$ unitary matrix given in Eq.~(\ref{eq:murnf}). We
have calculated the possible combinations and have found that
there are eight distinct parametrizations.
The unitary nature of the matrix imposes eight conditions on the connections
between adjacent rows and columns, analagous to the six unitarity triangles
for the three family case, but for four generations the unitarity
condition forms a quadrilateral in the imaginary plane.
We have found only one set of invariants that are independent of
their positions in the matrix, i.e.~for which one can choose any
element to be the `starting point' element $V_{j,\alpha}$ in the
definitions of {\bf K}, {\bf L} \rm and {\bf M} given below (where
the invariants are the sums or differences of the imaginary
parts of four plaquettes). These are not however independent of
the choice of parametrization but are invariant for each of the
individual choices.
\begin{eqnarray}
\bf{K} & = & \Im[V_{j, \alpha} {V^*_{j,\alpha + 1}}
{V^*_{j + 1,\alpha}} V_{j + 1, \alpha + 1}] \nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{k, \alpha + 2} {V^*_{k,\alpha + 3}}
{V^*_{k + 1,\alpha + 2}} V_{k + 1, \alpha + 3}] \nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{j + 2, \beta} {V^*_{j + 2,\beta + 1}}
{V^*_{j + 3,\beta}} V_{j + 3, \beta + 1}] \nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{k + 2, \beta + 2} {V^*_{k + 2,\beta + 3}}
{V^*_{k + 3,\beta + 2}}] \nonumber\\[12pt]
\bf{L} & = & \Im[V_{j + 1,\alpha} {V^*_{j + 1, \alpha + 1}}
{V^*_{k, \alpha + 2}} V_{k,\alpha + 3}] \nonumber\\[4pt]
&&{} - \Im[V_{j, \alpha} {V^*_{j,\alpha + 1}}
{V^*_{k + 1,\alpha + 2}} V_{k + 1, \alpha + 3}] \nonumber\\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{j + 3,\beta} {V^*_{j + 3, \beta + 1}}
{V^*_{k + 2, \beta + 2}} V_{k + 2,\beta + 3}] \nonumber\\[4pt]
&&{} - \Im[V_{j + 2, \beta} {V^*_{j + 2,\beta + 1}}
{V^*_{k + 3,\beta + 2}} V_{k + 3, \beta + 3}] \nonumber\\[12pt]
\bf{M} & = & \Im[V_{j,\alpha + 1} {V^*_{j, \alpha}}
{V^*_{j + 1, \alpha + 1}} V_{j + 1,\alpha}] \nonumber\\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{k, \alpha + 2} {V^*_{k,\alpha + 3}}
{V^*_{k + 1,\alpha + 2}} V_{k + 1, \alpha + 3}] \nonumber \\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{j + 2,\beta + 1} {V^*_{j + 2, \beta}}
{V^*_{j + 3, \beta + 1}} V_{j + 3,\beta}] \nonumber\\[4pt]
&&{} + \Im[V_{k + 2, \beta + 2} {V^*_{k + 2,\beta + 3}}
{V^*_{k + 3,\beta + 2}}],
\label{eq:spa}
\end{eqnarray}
\noindent
where $ k = j$ or $j+1$ and $\beta = \alpha$ or $\alpha+1$, but if
$k = j + 1$, then $\beta \neq \alpha + 1$ and similarly, if
$\beta = \alpha + 1$ then $ k \neq j + 1$.
\section*{Acknowledgments}
This is where one places acknowledgments for funding bodies etc.
Note that there are no section numbers for the Acknowledgments and
Appendix. The style file will automatically generate the heading
for references.
\begin{appendix}
%\section*{Appendix}
We can insert an appendix here and place equations so that they are
given numbers such as Eq.~(\ref{eq:app}).
\begin{equation}
x = y.
\label{eq:app}
\end{equation}
\end{appendix}
\begin{thebibliography}{99}
\bibitem{ja}
C Jarlskog in {\it CP Violation}, ed. C Jarlskog
(World Scientific, Singapore, 1988).
\bibitem{ma}
L. Maiani, {\it Phys. Lett.} B {\bf 62}, 183 (1976).
\bibitem{bu}
J.D. Bjorken and I. Dunietz, {\it Phys. Rev.} D {\bf 36}, 2109 (1987).
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}